Epidemiologists use studies looking for factors which do harm. Our responsibility is to compare patients who already have a certain condition (cases exclusively formula fed or part formula fed) with patients who do not have this condition (an exclusively breastfed control as an evolutionary standard developed over 300 million years) as a case control study. It is  upside-down science to report “advantages of breastfeeding”. Mothers need to know “what are the risks of manufactured formula?”

ODDS are calculated by dividing the number of times an event happens by the number of times it does not happen.

ODDS RATIOS are calculated by dividing the odds of having been exposed to a risk factor by the odds in the control group.

We believe it would help resolve the yet unsolved problem of defective breastfeeding advocacy if our scientific journals reported dose-related health deficits of formula as a risk and not the evolutionary norm of breastfeeding as a benefit. Compare the occasional bottle of formula with passive smoking.