1. Formula denies safety of basic evolutionary benefits for baby and mother which are not only nutritional, immunological and infection protective but through Oxytocin, maternal responsiveness and relationship benefits provide safer mothering, reduced maternal stress and improved evolutionary survival  – see slides 27,28
  2. Formula feeding by epileptic mothers who have used Valproate during pregnancy has been associated with a 12 IQ point loss. 106 breast vs. 94 for formula  (JAMA Pediatr 2014;168:729) – slide 35
  3. Formula feeding by mothers has been associated with a 20% to 30% reduction in their baby’s white matter at age 2 years on MRI (NeuroImage 2013,82:77)  – slide 33  (for grey matter reduction see slide 34)
  4. Formula feeding denies Serotonin neurotransmission in lactating breast alveoli which provide PTHrP expression and optimal Ca and P metabolism aiding the reset of both pregnancy and lactation physiology at weaning. Menopausal hip fracture increased by 50% resulting from absent reset physiology with formula feeding (J Bone & Joint Metab 2011;26:2843)  – slides 38,39
  5. Formula (probably just one bottle) denies optimal gut colonisation delaying mucosal host defence and impairing immune homeostasis with increased susceptibility to infection, allergy and autoimmune disease. Deficient sialic acid conjugation may impair ganglioside structure and white matter synaptogenesis – slide 43
  6. Formula denies resetting of visceral fat metabolism. “Million Women Study”. At every parity level BMI significantly lower with breastfeeding just 6 months P= .001  – slide 42
  7. Formula feeding denies resetting of breast cell histology and increases breast cancer riskslide 41
  8. Any feeding by bottle may deny the  process of buccal stimulation required for optimal facial development, tongue extrusion and speech  (1. Ashley Montagu, Breastfeeding and Food policy in a hungry world, ed, Dana Raphael pp 192 ISBN 0-12-580950-6; Early Human Development 1995; 42:185-93  – slide 65 – 2. Catherine Watson Genna  Supporting Sucking Skills